A Time- and Space-Efficient Garbage Compaction Algorithm (1978)

F. Lockwood Morris

Abstract

Given an area of storage containing scattered, marked nodes of differing sizes, one may wish to rearrange them into a compact mass at one end of the area while revising all pointers to marked nodes to show their new locations. An algorithm is described here which accomplishes this task in linear time relative to the size of the storage area, and in a space of the order of one bit for each pointer. The algorithm operates by reversibly encoding the situation (that a colliction of locations point to a single location) by a linear list, emanating from the pointed-to location, passing through the pointing locations, and terminating with the pointed-to location's transplanted contents.